Cooling Technology Institute
Encouraging the wise use of our water resources...
view cart View Cart  |  Search  

CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Testing

Revised 2009

To add a paper to your shopping cart, click on the paper's order number button.

Testing
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
A Reynolds Number Correction for Pitot Measurement Dudley Benton, McHale & Associates 2009
Abstract: The Pitot tube has been the mainstay of flow measurement in cooling towers for decades, but this isn't the only application for velocity probes of this type. Unlike the cooling tower flow, most other applications of these and similar probes consider the Reynolds number-typically at the head of the probe. The correction for Reynolds number in the derived correlations for such probes is iterative, but easily implemented and converges quickly. The information necessary to incorporate a correction for Reynolds number is often collected-but not used-along with the other data when the probe is being calibrated. This paper will explore the efficacy of utilizing a local Reynolds number correction with several Pitot probes and whether or not this actually reduces the overall uncertainty of the final flow measurement.
Affecting Test Uncertainty Benjamin Goddard and Eugene Culver, McHale and Associates 2009
Abstract: The CTI ATC-105 test codes give us guidance to conduct a cooling tower thermal performance test with results having a reasonable uncertainty. A test configuration with a different number of measurements and instrumentation can lead to changes in the uncertainty and the resultant calculated tower capability. This presentation will describe these changes for a project with water-flow measurements in the main line and on individual risers plus installation of additional wet bulb sensors beyond the code required minimum. The significance of sensitivity variation among the test measurement parameters as they related to tower capability is also discussed.
Seismic Qualification of Cooling Towers by Shake-Table Testing Panos G. Papavizas, Baltimore Aircoil Company 2008
Abstract: The International Building Code (IBC) establishes qualification requirements for equipment, such as evaporative cooling equipment, to resist seismic loads. Where certification of seismic resistance is required, the basis for certification must be by analysis, testing, or experience data. For designated seismic system equipment that must remain operable following an earthquake, the most reliable basis for certification is shake-table-testing. The Code-recognized test standard AC156 provides a generic methodology for verifying post-earthquake functionality. This paper will focus on seismic qualification by shake-table testing per AC156's, and make more recommendations specific to evaporative cooling equipment for verification of post-test functionality.
Demonstrating the Effectiveness of Field Testing Evaporative Vapor Condensers Glenn D. Comisac, Baltimore Aircoil Company 2000
Abstract: Determining the thermal capacity of evaporative condensers has long been left to theory, "rules of thumb," or the guarded operations of manufacturers' test laboratories. Now, modern instrumentation and test methods make field-testing of evaporative condensers practical, accurate, and readily available to owners, engineers, and manufacturers alike. Field-testing gives owners the ability to confirm manufacturers' performance guarantees on new equipment and also to determine the current capacity of existing installations. To demonstrate the practicality and accuracy of field-testing, a series of thermal capacity tests were performed in both the controlled environs of a thermal laboratory and at an operating industrial refrigeration facility. This study presents the testing methods used and an analysis of the test results, based on standards from ASHRAE, ARI, and CTI. This series of tests demonstrates that field-testing of evaporative condensers is both practical and accurate. Field-testing can be used to accurately assess the performance of evaporative condensers, new and existing.




Copyright 2012-2014
Cooling Technology Institute


Cooling Technology Institute, P.O. Box 73383, Houston, TX 77273-3383, Phone 281-583-4087, Fax 281-537-1721, Email vmanser@cti.org