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CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Corrosion

Revised 2014

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Corrosion
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Restoration of Concrete Cooling Towers Damaged by Reinforcing Steel Corrosion Javier Balma and Dilip Choudhuri, Walter P. Moore 2014
Abstract: This paper describes the ongoing restoration of two reinforced concrete hyperbolic cooling towers that exhibited extensive deterioration due to corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel. The cooling towers were constructed in 1983 and 1985 and are each 453 feet tall reinforced concrete shell structures. The restoration work included the removal and replacement of more than 200,000 square feet of concrete and the installation of an impressed current cathode protection (ICCP) system to protect the embedded reinforcing steel from corrosion. The cost of the restoration work is approximately $53 million.
Premature Failure of Open and Closed Recirculating Cooling Water and Fire Water System Piping and Equipment – Are you Responsible? Robert J. Cunningham, P.E., Arthur Freedman Associates, Inc 2014
Abstract: In recent years there have been a relatively large number of unexpected, premature failures of system water piping associated with HVAC, Process Cooling, and Fire Water systems in modern buildings designed for commercial, residential, health care, governmental, and manufacturing occupancy. Facilities designed to provide long term service live are failing due to severe corrosion resulting in complete penetration of circulating water piping as a result of severe pitting type attack. This corrosion is occurring on the water side in both galvanized and un-galvanized carbon steel and copper piping. It is not uncommon to encounter systems where complete penetration has occurred within 4 to 8 years after initial commissioning, even though it appears to the building management team that an appropriate water treatment program is in place. These premature failures are now finding their way into the courts, as attempts are made to determine responsibility and to seek compensation for these failures, resulting in severe reduction in asset value.
A Review of Solid-Form Scale and Corrosion Inhibitors Mike Hunter, APTech Group, Inc. 2014
Abstract: Solid form water treatment scale and corrosion inhibitors for cooling water systems have been on the market as an alternative to liquid chemistry for well over a decade. With that much use history in place, now is a good time to review the water treatment effectiveness, as well as the many “soft” advantages of Solid water treatment chemicals in the areas of safety, material handling, space-saving concerns, and shipping. This paper will examine the claims of Solid water treatment products to understand if they stand up to close scrutiny.
Microbial Corrosion on Metallic Surfaces Karoline Bohlen, Colorado School of Mines 2013
Abstract: The underlying conclusion to past studies on microbial corrosion is that it is a complex subject, still not yet well understood. It’s been found that many bacterial species can be part of the corrosion process, different metal surfaces show different progressions of corrosion, and microbes can also inhibit corrosion of the metals. There is no consensus as to the role microbes can play; it is quoted from varying sources that microbial induced corrosion is involved in the range of 2% to 90% of problem. This paper summarizes the process and proposes a simple research approach.
Prevention of Corrosion, Erosion and Abrasion in Cooling Towers Lake Barrett and Karl Sauereisen, Sauereisen, Inc. 2013
Abstract: Asset preservation is a major priority among utilities and communities. Within Cooling Towers, the forces of corrosion, abrasion, and erosion can have devastating effects. Changes in cooling Tower design and water treatment practices are, in some cases, elevating the exposure. The use of protective materials is becoming increasingly critical to extending the life of cooling tower infrastructure. Sauereisen will present multiple solutions for restoring and protecting cooling tower basins and any other vulnerable concrete or steel surfaces.
The Progression of Automation and Process Control for the Management of Open Cooling Water Systems Kevin Milici and Gary E. Geiger, GE Water & Process Technologies 2011
Abstract: Enhancement opportunities for cooling water systems can be placed into three major categories. The first is optimizing the dosing of specialty and adjunct commodity chemicals used for corrosion, scale/deposit, and microbiological control. Making sure the right dosage of the right chemistry at the right time avoids “overfeeding” for worst case situations. Once optimized, minimizing the variation greatly reduces the potential for failures that result in unscheduled shutdowns or impaired operations. Secondly, confidence from effective measurement and control enables the optimized use of increasingly scarce water supplies, and/or the ability to utilize lower quality, alternative water sources. Lastly, the productivity of personnel charged with operating cooling systems can be greatly enhanced. In recent years, much focus has been placed on online instrumentation and control while these advances are and will continue to be welcome contributions to users. This paper discusses the advent and merits of new and complimentary online and offline monitoring and control technologies, using case studies and practical scenarios as illustrations of their impact for users.
Copper Corrosion Control And Minimized Copper Discharge From Cooling Tower Jasbir S Gill, Ph.D. and Ed Grodecki, Nalco Company 2010
Abstract: Many Cooling towers and once through cooling systems' operators are facing tighter regulations on metals concentrations in cooling water discharge. Chief among these metals is copper, which of course is the primary material in many condenser tubes. This paper discusses the results and lessons learned at a Power Plant faced with new NPDES discharge limits for copper discharge. The paper also discusses improvements that are underway to the biocide and scale-inhibitor feed systems, management of cooling system operation, optimization of pH control, and the application of newly developed halogen stable copper corrosion inhibitor to reduce copper discharge.
Corrosion Protection of Concrete For Cooling Towers Dilip Choudhuri, P.E. and Javier Balma, Ph.D., P.E., Walter P. Moore and Associates, Inc. 2010
Abstract: This paper will discuss the corrosion protection methodology for concrete as it relates to cooling tower structures. The paper will focus on the cementations repair materials, high build coatings, sacrificial corrosion methods and impressed current corrosion technology. The paper will provide an basic overview of these technologies and will be focused on the needs of owners, operators and facility managers of these type of structures.
Cooling Water - Optimal Control of Admiralty Corrosion Utilizing Multiple Halogen Sources Gene Dombrowski, ChemTreat, Inc. and John Zimowski, Dupont 2007
Abstract: Effective copper alloy and steel corrosion control, along with effective fouling control, can be major challenges in industrial cooling water systems. Major issues include achieving effective chlorine and copper alloy inhibitor feed rates and proper residual control. This paper provides a case history that describes how monitoring of cooling water chemistry, corrosion monitoring, and fouling monitoring were used to achieve effective performance results under difficult conditions. Advantages of using bleach and activated bromide to subsidize the gaseous chlorine application are discussed. Some of the monitoring tools used to determine adequate treatment concentrations and to optimize performance with respect to chemical costs and avoided costs are described.
Corrosion-Induced Concrete Deterioration and Rehabilitation of Natural Draft Hyperbolic Cooling Tower Leandro Etcheverry, Corrosion Restoration Technologies 2007
Abstract: Since an environmental conductive to corrosion-induced deterioration exists in natural draft hyperbolic cooling towers, understanding of the deterioration mechanisms as well as effective rehabilitation strategies are required to preserve the value of natural draft hyperbolic cooling towers. Due to the progressive nature of corrosion deterioration, the consequences and costs associated with delaying repairs can be significant. By utilizing state-of-the-art concrete repair technology augmented with high performance construction materials and protection systems, cost effective repair programs can be implemented. These repair programs can extend service life and protect the value of the high initial investment associated with the construction of hyperbolic natural draft cooling towers.
New Liquid Biocide Products for Specific Industrial Water Treatment Requirements Christopher Nalepa, Albemarle Corporation 2007
Abstract: Liquid biocides continue to be a popular choice for control of microorganisms in industrial water systems and numerous treatment options exist in both oxidizing and non-oxidizing biocide categories. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a family of liquid biocides based on bromine chloride as the active ingredient. These products were developed with the requirements of specific water treatment segments in mind. Products are available for both the commercial and middle-market segments that deliver the convenience and consistent activity that is much valued in these market segments. Higher activity products were also developed for large-volume heavy-industrial applications that feature activity approaching that of fresh "off-the-line" bleach while still delivering the benefits of a stabilized bromine system. This paper will point out the unique features of this family of products and show comparative field and laboratory data to aid in proper biocide selection.
A New Organic Closed Loop Corrosion Inhibitor William Beer, GE Water Process Technology 2007
Abstract: A new all-organic closed loop corrosion inhibitor has been developed that can replace the traditional Molybdate/Nitrite products. This product uses a unique combination of three components to provide mild steel corrosion passivation along with a copper inhibitor and polymeric dispersant. The performance results of the new product in actual closed loop system will be discussed. The systems chosen to evaluate the product in field applications represent a variety of water chemistries, metallurgy, biological, and temperature conditions normally encountered.
Improving Localized Corrosion in a Complex Cooling Water System Michael H. Dorset and Art Brunn, DuPont; Kevin Daigle, ChemTreat, Inc 2006
Abstract: A DuPont plant has experienced severe localized corrosion from a complex corrosion phenomenon in its cooling water system. A large semi-closed cooling water system was created ten years ago and since has had aggressive corrosion attack particularly on carbon steel surfaces. A new treatment program has been applied and is currently providing improvement. The paper will present performance data on the treatment program and other steps that have been taken to upgrade system performance. This program is in progress and additional data will be includes as it is developed.
Corrosion and Biofouling Control in a Refinery Cooling Water System Using Sewage Water as a Make-up. Abdulmohsen Almajnouni, Saudi Arabia Oil Company and Arif Jaffer, Consultant 2002
Abstract: Experience has shown that corrosion and biofouling control are important factors in operating a "clean" open evaporative cooling water system. Treated sewage water as make-up to the cooling tower requires novel approaches to control corrosion and biofouling besides meeting environmental regulations. An intensive field study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a non-chromate treatment program. On-line cleaning of the exchangers occurred prior to instituting the new chemical treatment program. Low carbon steel corrosion rates with minimal deposition was achieved. Microbiological fouling was controlled with chlorination and non-oxidizing biocide program. Field tests are presented that compares the efficacy of these proprietary treatments to control corrosion and inhibit scale and biofouling. Analytical results are presented that provide a comprehensive evaluation program of a new non-chromate chemical treatment program.
Elucidation of Components of Aromatic Triazole Demand in Cooling Water Systems and Development of More Environmentally Friendly Yellow Metal Corrosion Narasimha M. Rao, Donald A. Johnson, Frank F. Lu, Nalco Chemical Company; N.P. Nghhiem, Oakridge Nat'l Laboratory 1997
Abstract: Concern about aquatic toxicity of cooling water discharges has driven the development of biodegradable inhibitors for use in cooling water treatment. Aromatic 1,2,3-Triazoles are important components of corrosion inhibitor package of most cooling water formulations. This paper examines the correlation between structure of aromatic triazoles and the ease of their biodegradation. The mechanism and kinetics of biodegration and the impact of structure-specific biodegradation rates of isomers on inhibitor consumption in power plant applications is discussed. The understanding of structure-biodegradability correlations has led to the development of new, more environmentally friendly yellow metal corrosion inhibitors, which also posses superior yellow metal corrosion inhibition performance. The properties of one of these inhibitors are discussed.
Cathodic Protection of the Palo Verde Cooling Towers William R. Schutt, Matcor, Inc. 1996
Abstract: This paper discusses the concrete damage due to the corrosion of the reinforcing steel in the nine cooling towers at this nuclear power plant. Although some conventional concrete repairs were tried, they were unsuccessful. The cause of the concrete damage was the corrosion of the reinforcing steel. After a series of tests and trial cathodic protection systems, a full-scale cathodic protection installation program was started. The paper documents the process and how the cathodic protection system is saving the owner almost ninety million dollars.
Analyzing Corrosion Rates of Copper for Open Recirculating Systems Gary Caplan, Diversey Water Technologies Ltd. 1996
Abstract: A Total Quality Management (TQM) Program consists of at least three topics: Quality Function Development, Quality Costs and Problem Solving Techniques. This paper reviews five problem solving techniques in order to solve the following problem: "Why are copper corrosion rates as measured by coupon so high in recirculating cooling waters?" The techniques used include brainstorming, flow charts, histograms, and papeto analysis and cause-and effect diagrams. Although copper was the metal of interest, these approaches can be used to study corrosion of other metals or to evaluate any other problem.
Corrosion Inhabition of Ferrous Metal in Soft Water Under Cooling Water Conditions Colin Hogan, FMC Process Additives Division 1996
Abstract: Corrosion control is a critical factor in the maintenance of low hardness, or soft industrial cooling water systems. Soft water corrosion problems are increasing due to the use of non-chemical pretreatment systems, e.g., desalination and reverse osmosis. Using process simulation and electrochemical data. This paper describes the use of currently available chemical technology as a possible solution to this problem comprising phosphonate chemistry have been optimized for minimum corrosion rates in representative test waters.
Pitting Corrosion of Cooling Water Systems Mark A. Lisin, P.E. & Thomas M. Laronge, Thomas M. Laronge, Inc. 1994
Abstract: Operation of cooling water systems requires that availability of system components be optimized. Pitting corrosion of pumps, valves, heat exchangers, piping, etc. impacts this availability. Pitting due to crevices, microbiological activity, deposit is, materials selection, system operation and other variables is discussed. Prevention and control guidelines for pitting corrosion in cooling water systems based upon real system experience are presented.
The Control of Ferrous Metal Corrosion in Cooling Water by a Novel Phosphonate Corrosion Inhibitor David A. Little, Wayne A. Mitchell & E.S. Lawson, Grace Dearborn 1994
Abstract: The use of a novel phosphonate corrosion inhibitor improves general steel corrosion and steel pitting corrosion in cooling water systems. This halogen stable phosphonate inhibitor shows efficacy for traditional continuous flow cooling systems and additionally for cooling systems characterized by low or no flow for extended periods of time. Case histories for performance at an air separation plant and at a plastic mold injection plant are documented.
Cooling Water Corrosion Problems in the Utility Industry: MIC Case Histories (TP-91-13) Paul R. Puckorius & Robert T. Hess, Puckorius and Associates, Inc. 1991
Abstract: Service water corrosion problems in both the nuclear and fossil fuel plants have been related to both water quality and Microbiological Induced Corrosion (MIC). Investigation of water quality, operating conditions, and effective monitoring are necessary to identify the principle causes for pitting of both mild steel and stainless steel. Case histories illustrate this investigation and causes. Various corrective measures are provided along with support data.
Update on White Rust Corrosion and Control (TP-91-14) Keith M. Johnson & Joseph B. Mihelic, Drew Industrial Division 1991
Abstract: The problem of "white rust" of galvanized steel cooling towers is defined. The available published literature is reviewed briefly. Laboratory work designed to determine the impact of several chemical and physical parameters are described. The nature of the protective layer which forms on galvanized steel surfaces in contact with different chemical environments is described. A generic procedure to minimize white rust in new-galvanized cooling towers is proposed.
An Alternative Oxidizer, Bromine Offers a Northeast Chemical Plant Improved Corrosion and Fouling Control (TP-90-08) Mark J. Giusto, Drew Industrial Division 1990
Abstract: Chlorine was historically used as the oxidizing microbiocide at this location as it was considered the most economic alternative. Recent changes in state law, with respect to the storage of chlorine gas, forced the plant to review other oxidizing chemistries, which previously were considered economically unattractive. A trial was run on solid bromine releasing compounds and on activated sodium bromide. Change in corrosion rates and in the amount and type of suspected matter in the water was noted. Improved fouling control and reduction of corrosion rates of admiralty brass and mild steel resulted. Cost comparisons are made.
Reducing Copper Corrosion and Discharge Via a Novel Inhibitor and Applications Program (TP-89-01) Orin Hollander & Charles Shelton, Betz Industrial, & Ronald Griffin, City of Tallahassee Electric Dept. 1989
Abstract: The A.B. Hopkins Generating Station operates under severe copper discharge limits of 30 ppb at the discharge point. A program of continuous feed of 3 ppm of Tolyltriazole reduced Admiralty Brass corrosion rates from 1.5 mpy to 0.15 mpy, and copper discharge from 400 ppb to 120 ppb. A new proprietary inhibitor, which is feed for 10 minutes every 3 weeks to 5 ppm active reduced corrosion rates to 0.0w mpy and copper discharge to 20-25 ppb.
Investigation of Alternative Inhibitor Programs for Highly Corrosive Alkaline Waters (TP-89-11) Greg Simpson & Richard Murtagh, Burmah Technical Services, Inc. 1989
Abstract: The poor performance of a particular corrosion inhibitor package in an open evaporative cooling system resulted in increased efforts to find alternate inhibitors, which would give acceptable corrosion results. Through the molybdate-based inhibitor is used with very good results in other towers with similar waters the results in this tower were marginal to poor. A laboratory investigation was undertaken to assess the performance of a conventional HEDP-Zinc package and HEDP-Low Zinc package and a proprietary Phosphonate-Low Zinc (PPLZ) package relative to that of the existing program. This paper presents the results of both the laboratory evaluation and field trial that resulted.
Corrosive Water - A Brazilian Reality (TP-87-17) Jose Otavio Silva, Messias Candido Amaral & Flavio Bianchi, Aquatec Quimica, S.A. 1987
Abstract: In Brazil, for the majority of open recirculating systems, make-up water contains a low dissolved solids index and its main contaminants are aluminum and iron. The first one derives from raw water clarification process leakage; the latter may have the same origin and/or may be a product of equipment and lines corrosion. Iron and aluminum form a compound of low solubility product that may seriously affect the heat transfer. Considering these characteristics, treatment programs were developed. The high efficiency of these programs is due to "high performance" dispersants that assure a perfect performance for corrosion inhibitors and biocides. This paper shows four years well succeeded programs used at a crude refinery where-own process contamination (sulphide, hydrocarbon) generally effect negatively any treatment program applied.
Experience With Galvanized Cooling on Alkaline Treatment Programs (TP-86-04) John C. Smedley, Olin Water Services 1986
Abstract: The trend toward high pH cooling water treatment programs and their effect on hot dip galvanized cooling towers is discussed. Included are typical ranges of cooling water quality, corrosion rates experienced in the sytems and deposit composition when experienced. The effects of concentration cells on galvanized steel in high solids water will be addressed. Also included are observations and experiences for maintaining trouble free operation.
A Petroleum Based System for Control of External Corrosion In, On and Around Cooling Towers (TP-86-16) Michael A. Berry & Carroll N. Steely, Denso, Inc., & James F. Axsom, P.E., Consultant 1986
Abstract: The pros and cons of a long-term, external corrosion control system based on petrolatum compounds in the form of paste, mastic and impregnated tapes for cooling tower pipe work and structural steel members. Surface preparation, on stream application techniques, conformability, performance and life expectancy will be covered, supported by case histories and color slides.
Development of Procedures for Pretreating Mild Steel Cooling Water Exchangers (TP-270A) Raymond M. Pasteris, Mobil Research & Development Corp. 1983
Abstract: Persistent corrosion of carbon steel cooling water heat exchangers in a large refinery prompted investigation into various pretreatment methods. Test heat exchangers with carbon steel tubes were pretreated in various manners to establish an effective pretreatment program. This article details the procedures and results of the bench studies and outlines effective full scale pretreatment methods instituted as a result of the bench studies.
Cooling Tower Hardware Corrosion Studies (TP-263A) Steven C. Blue, Union Carbide Corporation 1983
Abstract: A program is being conducted to identify alternate materials for maintenance of a system of cooling towers. Samples of fasteners and weldments of corrosion resistant metals and sheets for plastics have been placed in different zones of cooling tower and tested in the laboratory after several years of exposure.
Numerical Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitor Effectiveness and Supplier's Technical Services (TP-211A) William W. Wheeler, Rohm and Haas Texas, Inc. 1979
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On Stream Evaluation of General and Pitting Corrosion Rates in Cooling Using Potentiodynamic Techniques (TP-190A) A.E. Woodson, Petrolite Corp., Tretolite Division 1978
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The Evaluation of Nonchromium Low Zinc Cooling Water Corrosion Control Additive (TP-171A) Richard E. Badger, Shell Oil Company 1977
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Proper Start Up of Cooling Towers Systems - Prevent Initial Corrosion and Fouling (TP-162A) Paul R. Puckorius, Puckorius and Associates, Inc. 1977
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Fundamentals of Corrosion in Cooling Water Systems (TP-102A) William R. Hollingshad, Calgon Corporation 1972
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Protection of Iron and Steel Through Hot Dip Galvanizing (TP-69A) K.S. Frazier, American Hot Dip Galvanizers Association 1969
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A Report on Cathodic Protection of Underground Piping Systems at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (TP-57A) L.C. Burkhalter, M.F. Shelton & E.H. Tomlinson, Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division 1968
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The Corrosion Engineer Looks at the Cooling Tower (TP-13A) David W. McDowell, Jr., Southwest Research Institute 1964
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Corrosion Resistant Materials for Cooling Tower Hardware (TPR-126) Wesley W. Smith 1961
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